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北京导游词:六大景点英文导游词之长城

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北京导游词

TheGreatWall

TheGreatWall,likethePyramidsofEgypt,theTajMahal(1)inIndiaandtheHangingGardenofBabylon(2),isoneofthegreatwondersoftheworld.StartingoutintheeastonthebanksoftheYaluRiverinLiaoningProvince,theWallstretcheswestwardsfor12,700kilometerstoJiayuguanintheGobidesert,thusknownastheTenThousandLiWallinChina.TheWallclimbsupanddown,twistsandturnsalongtheridgesoftheYanshanandYinshanMountainChainsthroughfiveprovinces-Liaoning,Hebei,Shanxi,Shaanxi,andGansu--andtwoautonomousregions--NingxiaandInnerMongolia,bindingthenorthernChinatogether.

HistoricalrecordstracetheconstructionoftheoriginoftheWalltodefensivefortificationbacktotheyear656B.C.duringthereignofKingChengoftheStatesofChu.ItsconstructioncontinuedthroughouttheWarringStatesperiodinthefifthCenturyB.C.whenducalstatesYan,Zhao,Wei,andQinwerefrequentlyplunderedbythenomadicpeopleslivingnorthoftheYinshanandYanshanmountainranges.Walls,then,werebuiltseparatelybytheseducalstatestowardoffsuchharassments.Laterin221B.C.,whenQinconqueredtheotherstatesandunifiedChina,EmperorQinshihuangorderedtheconnectionoftheseindividualwallsandfurtherextensionstoformthebasisofthepresentgreatwall.Asamatteroffact,aseparateouterwallwasconstructednorthoftheYinshanrangeintheHanDynasty(206BC--1644BC.),whichwenttoruinthroughyearsofneglect.Inthemanyinterveningcenturies,succeedingdynastiesrebuiltpartsoftheWall.ThemostextensivereinforcementsandrenovationswerecarriedoutintheMingDynasty(1368--1644)whenaltogether18lengthystretcheswerereinforcedwithbricksandrocks.itismostlytheMingDynastyWallthatvisitorsseetoday.TheGreatWallisdividedintotwosections,theeastandwest,withShanxiProvinceasthedividingline.Thewestpartisarammedearthconstruction,about5.3metershighonaverage.Intheeasternpart,thecoreoftheWallisrammedearthaswell,buttheoutershellisreinforcedwithbricksandrocks.ThemostimposingandbestpreservedsectionsoftheGreatWallareatBadalingandMutianyu,notfarfromBeijingandbothareopentovisitors.TheWallofthosesectionsis7.8metershighand6.5meterswideatitsbase,narrowingto5.8metersontheramparts,wideenoughforfivehorsestogallopabreast.Thereareramparts,embrasures,peep-holesandaperturesforarchersonthetop,besidesgutterswithgargoylestodrainrain-waterofftheparapetwalk.Two-storiedwatch-towersarebuiltatapproximately400-metersinternals.Thetopstoriesofthewatch-towerweredesignedforobservingenemymovements,whilethefirstwasusedforstoringgrain,fodder,militaryequipmentandgunpowderaswellasforquarteringgarrisonsoldiers.Thehighestwatch-toweratBadalingstandingonahill-top,isreachedonlyafterasteepclimb,like"climbingaladdertoheaven".Theviewfromthetopisrewarding,hoverer.TheWallfollowsthecontourofmountainsthatriseonebehindtheotheruntiltheyfinallyfadeandmergewithdistanthaze.Asignalsystemformerlyexistedthatservedtocommunicatemilitaryinformationtothedynasticcapital.ThisconsistedofbeacontowersontheWallitselfandonmountaintopswithinsightoftheWall.Attheapproachofenemytroops,smokesignalsgavethealarmfromthebeacontowersinthedaytimeandbonfiredidthisatnight.

Emergencysignalscouldberelayedtothecapitalfromdistantplaceswithinafewhourlongbeforetheinventionofanythinglikemoderncommunications.Therestand14majorpasses(Guan,inChinese)atplacesofstrategicimportancealongtheGreatWall,themostimportantbeingShanghaiguanandJiayuguan.YetthemostimpressiveoneisJuyongguan,about50kilometersnorthwestofBeijing.Knownas"TianXiaDiYIGuan"(TheFirstPassUnderHeaven),ShanghaiguanPassissituatedbetweentwosheercliffsforminganeckconnectingnorthChinawiththenortheast.Ithadbeen,therefore,akeyjunctioncontestedbyallstrategistsandmanyfamousbattleswerefoughthere.ItwasthegateofShanghaiguanthattheMinggeneralWuSanguiopenedtotheManchuarmytosuppressthepeasantrebellionledbyLiZichengandsosurrenderedthewholeMingempiretotheManchus,leadingtothefoundationoftheQingDynasty.(1644-1911)JiayuguanPasswasnotsomuchasthe"StrategicpassUndertheHeaven"asanimportantcommunicationcenterinChinesehistory.Cleftbetweenthesnow-cappedQilianMountainsandtherollingMazongMountains,itwasontheancientSilkRoad.ZhangQian,thefirstenvoyofEmperorWuDioftheWesternHandynasty(206B.C-24A.D),crosseditonhisjourneytothewesternregions.Later,silkflowedtothewestthroughthispasstoo.Thegate-towerofJiayuguanisanattractivebuildingofexcellentworkmanship.Ithasaninnercityandanoutercity,theformersquareinshapeandsurroundedbyawall11.7metershighand730metersincircumference.Ithastwogates,aneasternoneandawesternone.Oneachgatesitsatowerfacingeachother.thefourcornersofthewallareoccupiedbyfourwatchtowers,oneforeach.Juyongguan,agatewaytoancientBeijingfromInnerMongolia,wasbuiltina15-kilometerlongravineflankedbymountains.ThecavalrymenofGenghisKhansweptthroughitinthe13thcentury.AtthecenterofthepassisawhitemarbleplatformnamedtheCloudterrace,whichwascalledtheCrossing-StreetDagoba,sinceitsnarrowarchspannedthemainstreetofthepassandonthetopoftheterracethereusedtobethreestonedagobas,builtintheYuanDaynasty(1206-1368).Atthebottomoftheterraceisahalf-octagonalarchgateway,interestingforitswealthofdetail:itisdecoratedwithsplendidimagesofBuddhaandfourcelestialguardianscarvedonthewalls.Thevividnessoftheirexpressionsismatchedbytheexquisiteworkmanship.suchgrandioserelicsworks,withseveralstonespiecedtogether,arerarelyseeninancientChinesecarving.Thegatejambsbearamulti-lingualBuddhistsutra,carvedsome600yearsagoinSanskrit(3),Tibetan,Mongolian,Uigur(4),HanChineseandthelanguageofWesternXia.Undoubtedly,theyarevaluabletothestudyofBuddhismandancientlanguages.Asaculturalheritage,theWallbelongsnotonlytoChinabuttotheworld.TheVenicechartersays:"Historicalandculturalarchitecturenotonlyincludestheindividualarchitecturalworks,butalsotheurbanorruralenvironmentthatwitnessedcertaincivilizations,significantsocialdevelopmentsorhistoricalevents."TheGreatWallisthelargestofsuchhistoricalandculturalarchitecture,andthatiswhyitcontinuestobesoattractivetopeopleallovertheworld.In1987,theWallwaslistedbyUNESCOasaworldculturalheritagesite.

Notes:1.theTajMahalinIndia印度的泰姬陵2.theHangingGardenofBabylon巴比伦的空中花园3.Sanskrit梵语4.Uigur维吾尔语

Therestand14majorpasses(Guan,inChinese)atplacesofstrategicimportancealongtheGreatWall,themostimportantbeingShanghaiguanandJiayuguan.YetthemostimpressiveoneisJuyongguan,about50kilometersnorthwestofBeijing.

Knownas"TianXiaDiYIGuan"(TheFirstPassUnderHeaven),ShanghaiguanPassissituatedbetweentwosheercliffsforminganeckconnectingnorthChinawiththenortheast.Ithadbeen,therefore,akeyjunctioncontestedbyallstrategistsandmanyfamousbattleswerefoughthere.ItwasthegateofShanghaiguanthattheMinggeneralWuSanguiopenedtotheManchuarmytosuppressthepeasantrebellionledbyLiZichengandsosurrenderedthewholeMingempiretotheManchus,leadingtothefoundationoftheQingDynasty.(1644-1911)

JiayuguanPasswasnotsomuchasthe"StrategicpassUndertheHeaven"asanimportantcommunicationcenterinChinesehistory.Cleftbetweenthesnow-cappedQilianMountainsandtherollingMazongMountains,itwasontheancientSilkRoad.ZhangQian,thefirstenvoyofEmperorWuDioftheWesternHandynasty(206B.C-24A.D),crosseditonhisjourneytothewesternregions.Later,silkflowedtothewestthroughthispasstoo.Thegate-towerofJiayuguanisanattractivebuildingofexcellentworkmanship.Ithasaninnercityandanoutercity,theformersquareinshapeandsurroundedbyawall11.7metershighand730metersincircumference.Ithastwogates,aneasternoneandawesternone.Oneachgatesitsatowerfacingeachother.thefourcornersofthewallareoccupiedbyfourwatchtowers,oneforeach.

Juyongguan,agatewaytoancientBeijingfromInnerMongolia,wasbuiltina15-kilometerlongravineflankedbymountains.ThecavalrymenofGenghisKhansweptthroughitinthe13thcentury.AtthecenterofthepassisawhitemarbleplatformnamedtheCloudterrace,whichwascalledtheCrossing-StreetDagoba,sinceitsnarrowarchspannedthemainstreetofthepassandonthetopoftheterracethereusedtobethreestonedagobas,builtintheYuanDaynasty(1206-1368).Atthebottomoftheterraceisahalf-octagonalarchgateway,interestingforitswealthofdetail:itisdecoratedwithsplendidimagesofBuddhaandfourcelestialguardianscarvedonthewalls.Thevividnessoftheirexpressionsismatchedbytheexquisiteworkmanship.suchgrandioserelicsworks,withseveralstonespiecedtogether,arerarelyseeninancientChinesecarving.Thegatejambsbearamulti-lingualBuddhistsutra,carvedsome600yearsagoinSanskrit(3),Tibetan,Mongolian,Uigur(4),HanChineseandthelanguageofWesternXia.Undoubtedly,theyarevaluabletothestudyofBuddhismandancientlanguages.

Asaculturalheritage,theWallbelongsnotonlytoChinabuttotheworld.TheVenicechartersays:"Historicalandculturalarchitecturenotonlyincludestheindividualarchitecturalworks,butalsotheurbanorruralenvironmentthatwitnessedcertaincivilizations,significantsocialdevelopmentsorhistoricalevents."TheGreatWallisthelargestofsuchhistoricalandculturalarchitecture,andthatiswhyitcontinuestobesoattractivetopeopleallovertheworld.In1987,theWallwaslistedbyUNESCOasaworldculturalheritagesite.

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